• ITGIUM TEAM

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  • 7 mai 2015

  • SEDIMENT 淤泥

    bandeau nemeau

  • ENERGY SAVINGS

    Itgium

  • URBAN PLANNING

    index-3

  • ITGIUM WORKS

  • jùn mǎ 俊 马 Speech at ITTC 2014 讲话

    Presentation ITTC

    • Speech of jùn mǎ at the International Technology Transfer in Beijing and Guiyang on April (ITTC 2014)
    • Topic: Energy savings solution along with a substantial diminution of carbon dioxide (CO2)
    • Session “Smart City and The City of Future Technology Innovation in China “.

  • ITGIUM FRENCH

    • Album : ITgium
      <b>Slide01</b> <br />
  • ITgium China Sediment

    Itgium China project

  • Chang Jiang Sediment Stock

    Slide2

    • No contaminated : 700 M m3
    • Slightly contaminated : 200 M m3
    • Heavily contaminated : 500 M m3

  • Chang Jiang Sediment Issue

    Slide1

    • Upstream the river, crossing the Tibetan plateau, sludge inflates the Chang Jiang. Due to an intense deforestation and desertification, soil is friable. Weakened banks permit landslides. Coupled with land overuse, sediment decreases the water velocity.
    • Each year, 500 million tons are deposited in the river gorges, including the retention lake. The pressure should affect its hydroelectric potential up to 30%.
    • Furthermore, sediments accumulation exerts a strong pressure on the structure and could lead to its cracking.
    • Because the Eurasian and the Yangtze plate are not stable, the risk of an earthquake does exist. In recent years, low-magnitude earthquakes have produce landslides.
    • In the event of a large-scale one, the Dam breaking could happen.
    • Downstream the river, sediment played before a role of natural fertilizer. Because of their decrease, agrochemicals use should be now required. So it will intensify water pollution.
    • Already levels of phosphorus and nitrogen are twenty times higher than the standards. In addition, the sediment reduction may push back the River delta. Moreover, in winter, it accelerates saline groundwater within the delta.

  • Slide2

  • Slide3

  • ITgium Chang Jiang Sediment Treatment Implementation

    Slide4

    This innovative technology enables :
    ♦ Clear separation of the solid and liquid
    ♦ Clarified water can return directly to the medium,
    ♦ Volume of material to be treated reduced to a factor of 10,
    ♦ Mud dries much faster,
    ♦ Sludge that is quickly recoverable in different sectors.

  • ITgium SEDIGATE Sediment Deshydration 沉淀物 脱水

    Nemeau

    For the rivers, canals, dams, lakes and harbors dredging, through a mechanized dewatering continuous rate of 1000 m3/h, SEDIGATE has developed a new technology able to divide in a few minutes the volume of sediments dredged from the water.

  • Urban light energy saving

    telecharger-ville-de-lumiere-original-1

    • Surface area : 140 ha
    • Number of light sources : 274
    • Estimated Investment : $ 650,000
    • Return on Investment : 3 years
    • 20 to 30 % consumption reduction

  • Smart City Content 智慧城市

    Iskandar-Malaysia-1-537x331-537x250

    A city can be defined as ‘smart’ when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic development and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory action and engagement

  • Why a Smart City 智慧城市 ?

    it_img01

    • Often due to the growing oriented population and in addition to the energy issues, cities face many problems in managing their resources (space, mobility, funding, etc..)
    • The answer : build an interactive smart city by integrating environmental issues can reduce the cost of the public equipment operating cost to 30% to 50%.

  • Smart cities six main dimensions

    dreamstime_9083449

    • Smart economy
    • Smart mobility
    • Smart environment
    • Smart people
    • Smart living
    • Smart governance

  • Smart City World Market

    smart-home-market-geography

  • Chinese Food Safety Law

    food-or-poison

    • A sweeping new Chinese food safety law enacted in the wake of several food safety incidents that tainted the “Made in China” brand worldwide.
    • This law toughens penalties against makers and traders of food, establishes a Cabinet-level food safety commission to improve coordination between departments and agencies, strengthens monitoring, streamlines food safety standards, establishes procedures for recalling substandard products and tightens import and export enforcement.
    • Regulations to implement the law are still being developed by the State Council.
    • For businesses operating in the food product supply chain, abiding by the food safety law and its implementing regulations may require additional resources and increase costs, especially in the short term.

  • Food Safety in China

    1341451668344_1341451668344_r

  • made in china-cs

  • Asbestos in China

    Affiche

    In China, until that day authorized, the asbestos material affects the following categories of people:
    • 120 000 workers in 31 asbestos mines
    • 1 M. workers in the chrysotile industrial production
    • 8 M. workers in manufacture hosting a high level of asbestos
    • 90 000 workers in ship breaking industries
    • 100 millions Chinese who lived daily under the asbestos threat in their housing

  • Asbestos in China

    Slide1

    Potential exposure to asbestos chrysotile in buildings could lead to physical disorders, costly diseases and death

  • Asbestos Death Toll in China

    Slide2

  • Asbestos and ship breaking industry

    06BST155N068GHISLAIN_MIRAT.jpg06BST155N068GHISLAIN_MIRAT.jpg

    Ship breaking industry in China
    • 180 companies
    • 1,800 000 workers
    • The shipping industry is the backbone of international trade.
    • It is also the source of major environmental toxins poisoning people and the planet.
    • A ship's life lasts for an average of 25 to 30 years after which they are no longer considered safe to sail.
    • 95% of these huge ships are made of valuable steel, which makes dismantling them to recover it, a lucrative prospect

  • Slide1

  • DJP ENERGY

    DJP

  • Slide1

  • Tags

  • ITGIUM PRESS

    Press Release

  • Slide2

  • ITGIUM INFO

    • Album : ITgium
      <b>Slide01</b> <br />
    • Album : Press Release : Shrimps diseases in China
      <b>Slide1</b> <br />
    • Album : Chemical disinfection
      <b>IMG_6034</b> <br />
    • Album : Saving energy
      <b>20140415_080014(1) copy</b> <br />
    • Album : Urban planning
      <b>IMG_2389</b> <br />
    • Album : Sediment treatment and valorization
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  • ITGIUM ISSUES

  • World energy dramatic consumption increase…

    Slide03

  • …that cause serious consequences.

    Slide04

  • How can we reduce the energy consumption ?

    Slide2

  • Right approach : China Saving Energy Stiffer Law 严格 法律

    law-enforcement

    • Standing Committee of China's National People's Congress (NPC), the country's top legislature, has voted to adopt revisions to the Environmental Protection Law, enshrining environmental protection as the government's overriding priority, with specific articles and provisions on smog.
    • For the first time, the law has established clear requirements for ecological protection.

  • One solution : Saving Energy in Building 大楼 节约能源

    city_lights_energy_savings_roller_shutters

    • In a typical European household, well over half the money spent on fuel bills goes towards providing heating and hot water, so it makes sense to invest in the most energy-efficient heating system.
    • So the main sector of energy savings is found in the housing communities.

  • Concrete example : Housing Saving Energy (Tianjin 天津)

    Building

    • Location : Bīnhǎi Xīn Qū (滨海新区)
    • Building, 40 floors, 30 000 m2
    • Concern Equipment : Heating or Air Conditioning
    • Estimated investment cost : $ 10,000
    • Return on investment : 13 months
    • Estimated 3 years Energy savings : $ 50,000
    • White certificate earning : $ 3,500

  • Example : Boilers Saving Energy China Potential Market

    Reduce-enkkergy

    Considering surface of more than 5000 m2 :
    • 12 millions of device today in activity has to be checked.
    • 25 % has to be replaced.
    • 75 % has to be rejuvenated through a saving energy device.
    • China boilers with saving energy device implementation market is estimated to a level of 24 billions of yuans (2,3 Md US$).

  • Chaoyang Saving Energy Plan 節能 计划朝阳区 節能 计划

    untitldfsfed

    What could be for the 5 years to come a plan to slash the energy consumption and to reduce the CO2 emission in the Cháoyáng Qū ?
    A triple project target
    • A reduction of the pollution and the emission of CO2
    • Inhabitants of buildings will save money on their energy bill
    • The Municipality will get to a new source of income

  • Chaoyang Estimates Saving Energy Plan

    Slide3 copy

  • Saving Energy means Saving Money for your properties ! 节省

    Slide1

    How to save money and add value to your real estate through an ecological way ?
    5 five ways to do it !
    In Europe :
    (1) For the housing building equipped with saving energy devices, the market rental values, yields and acquisition prices have steadily increased :
    • 2011 : + 3 %
    • 2012 : + 2,7 %
    • 2013 : + 2,6 %
    (2) Those ones that haven’t such equipment have experienced a sharp decrease that intensified over the years :
    • 2011 : - 2 %
    • 2012 : - 2,6 %
    • 2013 : - 4,7 %

  • Europe Saving Energy Plan

    hgdfhgshdf

    (1) In Europe, residential building consumption represents 45 % of the total energy cost (2013).
    This is the main sector of energy savings.
    (2) Under the Renewable Energy Directive 2012/0288 (COD), the EU aims to get 20% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020.

  • Carbon Trading : The White Certificate

    Carbon_trading

    • A white certificate, also referred to as an Energy Savings Certificate (ESC), is an instrument issued by an authorized body guaranteeing that a specified amount of energy savings has been achieved.
    • The white certificates are given to the producers whenever an amount of energy is saved whereupon the producer can use the certificate for their own target compliance or can be sold to (other) parties who cannot meet their targets.
    • Each certificate is a unique and traceable commodity carrying a property right over a certain amount of additional energy savings and guaranteeing that the benefit of these savings has not been accounted for elsewhere.

  • Saving Energy Regulation, examples

    Slide13

  • White certificate : How it works ?

    Slide14

  • China Science J

    China Science 中国 科学
    The "Four Great Inventions" (四大发明; sì dà fāmíng) are the
    • Compass 指南针 zhǐ nán zhēn
    • Gunpowder 火药 huǒ yào
    • Papermaking 造纸 zào zhǐ
    • Printing 印刷品 yìn shuā pǐn

  • Chinese History

    The China Way 中国 前景
    • 千里之行﹐始於足下。
    Qian li zhi xing, shi yu zu xia.
    A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.
    老子 Laozi
    • 不管黑猫白猫,捉到老鼠就是好猫。
    Buguan hei mao bai mao, zhuo dao laoshu jiu shi hao mao.
    No matter if it is a white cat or a black cat; as long as it can catch mice, it is a good cat.
    邓小平 Dèng Xiǎopíng

  • Slide15

  • Urban Saving Energy Project

    Slide19

    • Designing a city-wide questionnaire survey upon heating equipment
    • Measuring the annual fuel utilization of housing communities
    • Establishing consumption categories and GHG emissions accounting methodology
    • Data processing and analysis of the survey results, including influencing factor analysis and profiling of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities.
    • Estimates evaluation of today city energy global cost and saving energy estimates
    • Agenda statement
    • Implementation of the device according to a comprehensive plan

  • Estimates Saving Energy project

    Slide20

    During two months. The survey is engaged, district by district, during three months.

  • Saving Energy Solution : The DJP ENERGY experience

    Slide21

    • ECO REGULATOR - designed to cut back the energy cost on existing boilers in substantial housing estates and public amenities.
    • 20 % of Energy Saving on Boilers.

  • China CO2 Savings

    ChinaTelecomCO2savings

  • China Air Pollution Perspective

    china-air-pollution-db.png?w=984&h=746

  • GDP & Pollution Trend

    gdp--cars--so2--cod-in-china

  • China Air Pollution

    030614_chinapollution_figure

  • CO2 China Emission

    china-usa-india-carbon-dioxide-chart

  • Air Pollution effects

    HealthEffectsOfPM10Example.ashx

  • CO2 Diseases

    694px-Main_symptoms_of_carbon_dioxide_toxicity.svg

  • China Air Pollution Death Toll

    air_pollution_map-s

  • World Death Toll per area

    Screenshot-2014-03-25-at-1.52.12-PM

  • Tags

  • Méta

  • Site counters

The future of the nursing homes in China depends on the treatment of the infections diseases

Posté par ITgium le 27 October 2014

The future of the nursing homes in China depends on the treatment of the infections diseases dans Maisons de retraite en Chine watercolor-old-lady-guan-weixing-300x213

Old chinese lady

With a growing oriented elderly population, the nursing homes will be an important issue in China for the decades to come.

The Wolong intends to respond to the many questions being raised.

What could be a practical infection prevention program?

A review of current issues and challenges

In nursing homes, the acuity of illness of the elderly population has increased substantially in the last decade, as has the risk of acquiring new infections.

Nursing homes have been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality.

It is well known that nursing homes residents are at risk of infection because of frequent hospital stays, advanced age, exposure to multiple courses of antibiotics and numerous comorbidities. Older adults also have a diminished immune response including phenotypic and functional changes in T-cells. Other factors include malnutrition, multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy, with use of medications that may diminish host defenses.

In addition, older adults with cognitive impairment may not be compliant with personal hygiene and hand washing, and may have functional impairment that leads to immobility, and urinary and fecal incontinence, thereby increasing their risk for acquiring new infections and for transmission of those infections.

Slide1

NH-Itgium

Common infections in Nursing homes

Urinary tract, respiratory and skin and soft tissue infections are the most common endemic infections among nursing homes residents.

Epidemic infections commonly reported include viral gastroenteritis (such as norovirus infections), influenza and skin infections (e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and skin and soft tissue infections).

Antibiotic-resistant organisms are endemic in Nursing homes and can cause infections that may be difficult and expensive to treat.

Empirical and often inappropriate antimicrobial usage is extensive in all settings, but particularly in Nursing homes.

Outbreaks of seasonal influenza are reported frequently.

The Green Lady

We all become old

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli. It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases.

Pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections remain the leading cause of mortality in nursing homes residents and a primary reason for resident transfer to a hospital.

Pneumonia can manifest in the elderly with some atypical signs and symptoms, and may constitute a challenge for diagnosis in the NH setting.

Indeed, 25% of older adults may not develop fever in the presence of pneumonia and other infectious processes, and are less likely to complain of chills, myalgia and pleuritic chest pain compared with younger patients.

Aspiration pneumonia is common in the nursing homes population and is often associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia and regurgitation of gastric contents. Inadequate oral care significantly increases the risk for developing pneumonia.

Chest radiographs are helpful to define the presence of a new infiltrate, the severity of the disease and the presence of complications.

However, some nursing homes have limited or no access to radiological services, and the diagnosis is made clinically.

happy-old-chinese-man-300x220 infection control program dans Nursing homes in China

Happy old Chinese man

Urinary tract infection

UTI is the most common infection and perhaps the most over-diagnosed infection in Nursing homes. The presence of an indwelling urinary catheter increases the risk of both UTIs and bacteriuria.

For example, approximately 3–7% of nursinf homes residents with an indwelling urinary catheter will acquire a UTI with each day the catheter remains in place.

Guidelines to prevent indwelling catheter-associated UTIs include limiting the use of urinary catheters, minimizing the duration of urinary catheter use, diligent hand hygiene before and after any manipulation of the catheter, using aseptic technique to insert the catheter, maintaining a closed drainage system, and keeping the retention bag below the level of the bladder.

Diarrheal diseases

Viral and bacterial gastroenteritis cause the majority of diarrheal outbreaks in Nursing homes. Older adults are known to have a decreased production of gastric acid, and therefore, are at a higher risk for developing infectious gastroenteritis. The clinical course of gastroenteritis is usually self-limited.

Norovirus remains a common cause of gastroenteritis and is responsible for more than 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide.

Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of infectious diarrhea in NHs.

IMG_8884

Elderly

Skin & soft tissue infections

Older Nursing homes residents are particularly predisposed to skin and soft tissue infections due to several physiologic changes that occur with aging, including atrophy of epidermis and dermis, reduced resistance to external insults, and prolonged wound healing.

Dry pruritic skin can serve as a portal of entry for pathogens. Acute bacterial infections in NHs include cellulitis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis. Chronic wound infections, which are more common, include infected pressure ulcers, diabetic wound infections and vascular ulcers. Other skin infections include intertrigo, tenia versicolor, viral skin infections such as herpes zoster and simplex, and scabies.

Dental plaque

Dental plaque has been particularly studied as a source of bacteria that may cause respiratory infections.

Some study showed an association between periodontal disease and increased mortality from pneumonia. These studies emphasize the need to provide adequate oral care to NH residents.

A systematic review of randomized controlled trials reveals that oral hygiene has positive preventive effects on pneumonia and respiratory tract infections in elderly hospitalized patients and NH residents, with absolute risk reductions of 6.6–11.7%.

0920100513100219305

A

The American experience

Population : 1.7 million people

Nursing homes : 16,000

Age : More than 88% of these people are 65 years of age and older, More than 45% are age 85 years and older.

An average of 2 million infections have taken place in nursing homes in the USA (2013).

Precise estimates on the prevalence and incidence of infections in nursing homes are difficult to obtain due to a remarkable diversity in those being cared for in this setting.

Publié dans Maisons de retraite en Chine, Nursing homes in China, Old people in China | Pas de Commentaire »

Is Ebola coming to China ? Is Guangzhou safe ? Is China safe ?

Posté par ITgium le 5 October 2014

Is Ebola coming to China ? Is Guangzhou safe ? Is China safe ? dans Ebola in China 1353092887_8186_ebola-300x199

Ebola :

Microbes have the last word”

jùn mǎ (俊 马) (François de la Chevalerie)

With the ever-growing oriented commercial exchanges and economic links between Africa and China, this question arises as the Ebola disease (伊波拉病毒) has worsened the last weeks spreading over several countries, mostly strucking Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, showing signs of reaching Nigeria.

The Ebola virus is an infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

Limited health control at the entrance on the China soil

At the Guangzhou airport, each day, an unrelenting stream of African businessmen arrive from all parts of Africa, among them, 35 % from Nigeria, the most populated African state (177 Millions of inhabitants in 2014).

Machines have been set up at Baiyun to test incoming passengers temperatures, with anyone registering above 37.5 degrees Celsius (99.5 degrees Fahrenheit) being made to undergo a blood test, pulling people aside with high fevers, but so far until now none of them have tested positive for the Ebola virus.

To this date, at the airport checkpoints, health controls applicable are limited, if not non-consistent because of the incubation period that lasts from 2 to 21 days.

The today aim of the airport regulation is to ensure that the health checks are carried out in a way to impose minimum disturbance.

ebola-virus-pathogenesis-300x293 dans Health security in China

Ebola-virus-pathogenesis

So many businesses and factories in the Guangdong province depend of processing orders form African clients. Due to competition between Asian countries, the china wages trend increase, the local companies are facing some difficulty in remaining competitive.

As a consequence, in the recent years, for instance, the Guangzhou fair has declined.

From this point of view, it is not sensible for the entrance procedures to be made complicated.

Impact zone: the problem of the size of the population in the Guangzhou area

As soon as they arrived, the African visitors blend into the local population, mainly nearby the Guangzhou railways station (Guǎngzhōu Huǒchēzhàn) and the Xiaobei subway station (小北站) ,

The risks are twofold that the pandemic will strike first those areas and then, taking into account the size of the population of the Guangdong province, other cities : Foshan (佛山), Dōngguǎn (东莞), Shēnzhèn (深圳).

There, in the Guangzhou railways station area, the never-ending flow of people in the streets, the subway makes it impossible the control of the situation.

Many African have set up shop in bustling market zone that taxi drivers and other Chinese residents refer to as “Chocolate City.”

In this area, independent study conducted by Teuqiao shows that in just one hour, each person strolling through the streets is within less than a meter in direct contact with an average of 85 persons.

It is also concerned dramatically the overcrowding people in the local restaurant. This time, the customers are within less 50 centimeters, squeezed against each other like canned sardines.

Therefore, potential contagion risks are enormous, reaching a frightening scale.

ebola-virus-300x193 dans How many chinese will die from the Ebola disease ?

Ebola-Virus

Modes of Transmission

Direct contact with body fluids (blood, semen, cum, excretions, saliva) from an infected person is the main route of human transmission.

The risk is very high among hospital staff, especially if the sterilization of equipment is not adequate.

In addition, in endemic areas, lack of hygiene constitutes an unfavorable factor.

Transmission of the virus can also be carried by close contact with the patient’s relatives. Close contact means direct contact with the body fluids of an infected person, whether living or dead.

Get the Ebola through air droplets ?

Under experimental conditions, it seems that the virus spread by droplets or aerosol

There is only one peer-reviewed scientific study that shows that Ebola can possibly be spread without direct contact (i.e. airborne). And the study was performed in monkeys and pigs, so it might not be representative of Ebola infection in humans.

Risk_20090211

Global Ebola Outbreak

Also, that study is controversial, as many virologists have questioned the validity of the results.

My personal opinion is that the primary route of transmission is by direct contact with infected bodily fluids, yet I will keep an open mind to any new data. If any new scientific evidence demonstrates sustained human to human transmission by air droplets, then I will believe it. Until then, the evidence points to non-airborne Ebola transmission.

Viruses that spread efficiently by the airborne route need to fulfill at least two conditions:

(1) the virus needs to replicate to high quantities (high titers) in the respiratory tract, either in the nasal cavity, throat or in the lungs.

(2) There must also be sneezing and/or coughing for virus-containing air droplets to form and to disperse.

We just do not see these two conditions fulfilled with Ebola virus.

(a) Ebola virus replicates primarily in the cardiovascular system, such as the blood vessels, liver, kidney, not in the respiratory tract.

(b) For most patients, they do not develop a sneezing or cough reflex.

Just because you can find the virus in the air droplet does not mean it is spread by airborne route. You need a sufficient amount of virus in the air droplets for the droplets to be infectious.

If you have a pool of infected blood/vomit from an Ebola patient on the floor, and someone does something stupid to aerosolize the blood pool into the air (e.g. hosing the blood using strong water pressure), yes in that sense the virus can be made airborne. But that is not the traditional definition of an airborne transmission of a virus.

Traditionally it refers to virus released by coughing and sneezing.

Ebola

Pathogenicity power

The Ebola incubation period ranges from 2 to 21 days, mostly from 4 to 6 days. One week after the first symptoms, the virus went into the blood and the cells of the infected person.

The progression of the disease reaches the vital organs, especially the kidneys and liver.

They cause severe internal bleeding. Death occurs shortly after by organ failure and cardio-circulatory insufficiencies and shock.

Ebola has a case-fatality rate, averaging 60%.

The day 15, the infected people will experience a very serious deterioration of their health.

The big, the big question before us is at what stage of illness is the virus spreading by droplets or aerosol particles.

In that case, how many infected ones in their 15 days of incubation will met at random others people through the streets, the metro, in confined areas.

The more they met, the more there will be a multiplier effect of the persons infected like a never-ending spiral.

The worst in perspective

Because Ebola is constantly changing its genetic heritage, the more people who contracts the virus, the more this one mutates.

A vicious circle …

That’s why ITgium recommends the tests of experimental drugs. For most patients, they will arrive too late. We should not rely on new treatments to erradicate the today epidemic.

Indeed, this is essential in case of a new one.

-18-560x373

africans-in-guangzhou-china

Guangdong Public hospitals

Today, the Guangzhou hospitals are not as well equipped to accommodate such patients.

The personal is not sufficiently trained and there are no facilities for such persons.

Moreover, the staff is not adequately trained for the management of such disease.

However, the Chinese authorities have the ability to face up this situation, to secure in a short term the infected area zone and to arrange facilities in the hospital into conformity with European and American standards.

In addition to that, Guangzhou is especially sensitive to disease outbreaks, particularly since 2002, when the SARS epidemic began in nearby Foshan. The virus would go on to infect more than 5,000 people in mainland China, killing 349.

Across the border in neighboring Hong Kong, a major finance and transport hub that was also badly hit by SARS, officials are on high alert as well.

1665149-Guangzhou_Train_Station_Entrance_Exit-Guangdong_Sheng

Guangzhou train station

If it happens in China ?

But the main problem once again is the size of the Guangdong population. In Dallas, Texas, where a Liberian citizen walked freely in the streets with his illness, the sidewalks are wide, avenues are large and, moreover, most of the people are traveling in cars. The close encounters are limited.

In this southern American city, 100 people are under health surveillance.

In Guangzhou, if that happens, they might be 3000 at least to be under surveillance, anonymous people that one pass by them in the street or stand next to them in a queue.

It will be extremely difficult if not impossible in locating them ?

The question before us is this one: how to deal this situation without upsetting the local economic activity and thus without jeopardizing the commercial exchanges between Africa and China ?

Ebola - USA:Nigeria:Senegal

Press release

Are the United States less advanced than two poorest African countries, Nigeria and Senegal ?

The Spanish newspaper “El PAIS” reports that the health protocols, organization and methods used by two African states, Nigeria and Senegal, to defeat the pandemic of Ebola in their respective area.

Despite the endemic poverty in these countries (very low GDP per capita), the extensive use of information and communications technologies (in Nigeria almost the entire population received alert messages – hour after hour, day after day- by SMS), the people’s empowerment and above all the humbleness of the medical profession have led to the eradication of the disease.

Here, as following :

http://elpais.com/elpais/2014/10/14/planeta_futuro/1413281872_117917.html

Conversely, in the United States, the situation seems a little bit confusing.

See this point also, the interview of the brother of Thomas Eric Duncan, the Liberian Citizen who died from.

Publié dans Ebola in China, Health security in China, How many chinese will die from the Ebola disease ?, Is Guangzhou safe for Ebola ?, Virus in China | Pas de Commentaire »

Are the dams the cause of damaging earthquakes ?

Posté par ITgium le 27 September 2014

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Earthquakes

“The dam sustainability depends on its sediment treatment”.

jùn mǎ (俊 马) *

There is some speculation that the earthquake occurred in China’s Sichuan originate from the complicated dams issues.

The dams have deep environmental implications.

Hydropower, China’s largest source of renewable energy.

In recent years, because of the coal production reduction[1] China use of hydropower increases, now’s the largest source of renewable energy.

For the record, it is noted that the Chinese government and companies have pledged to invest $275 billion in pollution abatement by 2015.

But there has long been speculation that some of China’s deadly earthquakes were caused by nearby dams and filling of reservoirs.

839778-le-barrage-des-trois-gorges-sur-le-fleuve-yangtze

Three Gorges dam

A dam is not a neutral infrastructure.

Hustling the environment, it modifies dramatically the sediments distribution. Trapped into artificial lakes or tanks, sediments accumulation gives birth to serious problems.

Sediments constitute a real danger in case of seismic trouble. So, it is not exaggerated to affirm that dam future depends on sediments solutions treatment.

Located in Hubei province, near the city of Yichang, the Three Gorges Dam is the largest of the world for water control and hydropower productivity.

Built up thanks to a deviation of the Chang Jiang River, its a reservoir covers a surface area of 1084 km2. The hydroelectric power plant consists of two sections: on the left, 14 turbo generators, on the right, 12 turbo generators. The set offers a powerful 18720 MW. According to experts, the dam is expected to provide 10% of China electricity consumption.

troisgorges

Dam scheme

Sometimes quoted as a sustainable development project, the Three Gorges Dam disrupts and alters the sediment cycle.

Upstream the river, crossing the Tibetan plateau, sludge inflates the Chang Jiang. Due to an intense deforestation and desertification, soil is friable. Weakened banks allow landslides. In addition to land overuse, sediment decreases the water velocity. Each year, 500 million tons are deposited in the river gorges, including the retention lake.

Furthermore, sediments accumulation exerts a strong pressure on the structure that could lead to its cracking.

Because the Eurasian and the Yangtze plate are not stable, the risk of an earthquake does exist. In recent years, low-magnitude earthquakes have produce landslides.

Areas near Hubei’s Three Gorges Dam (2012-2013), the world’s largest hydropower project placed on the Yangtze River, saw 3,400 earthquakes registered during this period.

Are the dams the cause of damaging earthquakes ? dans China Sediment issues tectonic_map_of_china-300x223

Tectonic_map_of_China

Dam and earthquake correlation

By analyzing publicly available crude seismic data, I have found a rough correlation between the filling of reservoirs used to generate hydropower and seismic activity in the surrounding area, which bolsters existing research.

Some examples :

Ludian County earthquake (Aug. 3, 2014)

There’s great speculation as to whether this earthquake, which killed nearly 600 people, was linked to two nearby dams, Xiangjiaba and Xiluodu. Some researchers think the dams couldn’t have caused the quake because water—which can induce quakes—wouldn’t have been able to reach the initial 12km rupture; however, others said that the sheer weight of the reservoir could rupture the critically stressed fault.

Sichuan and Yongshan County earthquakes (April 20 and Aug. 30, 2013)

Caused by faults directly below the Xiluodu reservoir, these quakes are most likely to have erupted due to Xiluodu, according to geologists.

Sichuan earthquake (May 12, 2008)

With a death toll of around 70,000 people, geologists debate whether it was linked to the filling of the Zipingpu reservoir in Sichuan province. Some researchers think that the reservoir partially triggered the quake; others said it expedited the earthquake’s coming.

Should China’s government stop operating its dams to reduce life-threatening quakes, even if it requires losing an important clean energy source?

CRS-Dredge_slide5

Dredge

To challenge this situation, one of solution is the sediment removal.

But, given their volume, it requires considerable resources. Considering the Three gorges dam, downstream the river sediment transportation looks like a titanic operation, quite impossible to manage. Another answer is to valorize directly the sediments but they are heavily contaminated.

The dam construction has been swallowing 1300 coalmines, 178 garbage dumps, 1500 slaughter, etc. In fact, sediment offers an unprecedented variety of harmful heavy metals, toxic microorganisms, and so on. Their eventual recovery in construction materials suggests chemical treatments (for instance, their encapsulation).

Dehydrating process exists as those developed by the Franco-Chinese company Paneurochina SEDIGATE but given their enormous volume, the operation is likely unworkable.

The so-called Three Gorges sustainability depends on the sediment treatment.

Long underrated, the issue has been taken into account by the Chinese authorities, which fears the earthquake are related with that


[1] which makes up 70% of China’s energy

* Francois de la Chevalerie

Publié dans China Sediment issues, Dam & Earthquake, Earthquakes and Sediment in China | Pas de Commentaire »

China shrimp diseases : 40 % production lost in 2013

Posté par ITgium le 12 September 2014

China shrimp diseases : 40 % production lost in 2013 dans Food contamination in China methodemadagascar-300x260

Shrimps farm

China shrimp diseases : 40 % production lost in 2013

Health, food and prevention of diet-related diseases

From jùn mǎ (俊 马)*

Dangerous situation

Today, in China mainland, shrimp aquaculture or shrimps farms accounts for 90% of the total production.

Since 2009 in China, bacterial infection, early mortality syndrome, or EMS, was first reported. EMS or Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Syndrome (AHPNS) comes from bacteria and delays shrimp growth that prevents it from reaching maturity.

Since then, shrimp farms have seen their stocks plummet more than 40 %.

fp_ptop_shrimpfarms608

Shrimps treatment

Before that, an epizootic of disease (white spot) occurred among cultured shrimp in China, resulting in mass mortality.

The disease presumably spread among farms as a result of transport of contaminated shrimp seedlings and seawater. Water temperatures exceeding 25°C caused the disease to spread more rapidly.

As a consequence of the current situation, shrimp disease causes global shortage, drives up prices and moreover an impossibility of exporting.

In China, overall losses amounted to $1 billion in 2013.

It should not be forgotten Marine shrimp aquaculture is the most valuable marine aquaculture industry in the world at about $15 billion annually.

As a reminder, Chinese eat about 1.2 billion pounds of shrimp every year.

According to the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (Kēxué Jìshùbù 科学技术部) and the Ministry of Agriculture, within this context, improved agricultural technologies and practices is essential to halt the mentioned diseases.

Schermafbeelding 2013-01-25 om 14.01.03

Tevan

TEVAN HERLI Solutions

Established in 1816, TEVAN is a leading manufacturer of professional Cleaning and Decontamination Products finding applications in the treatment of Water Installations and Systems for an environmental aware market.

Since ten years, thanks to a team of researchers, TEVAN has developed specific formulas for the treatment of the shrimp’s diseases.

shrimp

shrimp

Future research will involve expanding this technology to include enhanced growth, and cold and disease resistance in shrimp and other species.

5 experimental pilots sites are in the pipeline, under preparation, covering the overall China.

A gentlemen’s agreement will be signed between the TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY (Beijing) and TEVAN.

Both institutions agree to share positively their expertise and to collaborate in a way to develop and consistent solutions in a way to protect the shrimp’s production.

Please contact us for further information in this respect :  

Mrs. Jena Cheng (jcheng@itgium.com)

Press Release : Shrimps diseases in China
Album : Press Release : Shrimps diseases in China

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Publié dans Food contamination in China, Food Safety in China, Shrimp's diseases | Pas de Commentaire »

Food safety in China (shí pǐn ān quán 食品安全)

Posté par ITgium le 4 September 2014

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Food Safety in China

jùn mǎ (俊 马)*

In many ways, the evolution of Chinese agriculture over the past 40 years is a remarkable success story.

First, after a long time fighting food shortages, China has been self-sufficient in food since 1995.

Later, spurred by investments in research and government subsidies for fertilizers and other farm technologies, China now feeds 22% of the world’s population on just 9% of its total arable land.

There were a total 400 000 food producing or processing entities in China in 2014.

About 35 percent of China’s labor force is in agriculture (compared to 2.5 percent in the U.S.). There are 425 million agricultural workers (200 million farming households) in China.

Food safety in China (shí pǐn ān quán 食品安全) dans Food contamination in China fig3_seasons-300x288

Agriculture seasons

Thus, despite achievements, the nation will continue to have a hard time ensuring food safety for a quite long time.

China’s food security is being challenged by a mix of factors, including rising demand, rapid urbanization, scarce natural resources and agricultural labor, and greater risk of food safety and environmental problems.

To make the nation’s food supplies safer in 2015, the authorities will carry out campaigns targeting six sectors: the rural food market, dairy products, edible oil, liquor, seasonal and festive food as well as food additive management, according to a statement released after Tuesday’s national work conference on food safety supervision.

food-poison-170x300 dans Food Safety in Beijing

food-poison

Increasing public awareness

Public demand for improvements in the management of food safety risks is increasing faster than the capacity to provide them.

It is fueled partly by the media focus on problems that involve acute outbreaks of food-related illness and on diseases like cancer that have a high “dread risk” factor, as well as by growing awareness of the impacts of environmental degradation on health more generally.

Public anxiety is heightened by the lack of reliable public information or risk communication, and by evidence of official corruption associated with some food safety problems.

Although the need for greater public over sight is recognized, there is a lack of formal mechanisms, such as consumer associations, to enable it.

environmental-heavy-metal-contamination

environmental-heavy-metal-contamination

Today situation in China, some painful examples

Food safety in China through four examples: heavy metal pollution, pesticides and veterinary drugs

(1) Contamination of food by heavy metals (particularly cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic) is of great concern because it affects staple foods including rice and vegetables and has severe health effects.

The presence of heavy metals in the food production environment can be due partly to high background levels, but is often caused or exacerbated by pollution from mining.

pesticides_on_food-300x215 dans Food Safety in China

Pesticides on food

(2) Pesticide residues and veterinary drugs both represent cases in which food safety risks have emerged as side effects of the intensification of agricultural production.

The rapid increase in agricultural productivity has been accompanied by an increase in the use of chemical inputs, and the overuse of pesticides in particular is recognized to be a serious problem.

The overuse of veterinary drugs is an issue of particular concern from a long-term public health perspective because it contributes to the genetic selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), which may render ineffective drugs commonly used to combat disease in humans as well as animals.

chinese-court-300x191 dans Food safety in Shanghai

chinese court

Tightening controls on the rise

Although the government has done much to enforce and supervise the application of the food hygiene law, the food safety situation in China today remains unsatisfactory.

Most were medium-sized or small, from which most food with safety problems originated.

Although Chinese are becoming rich, the average income of rural resident is only 1500 Yuan (US$ 180).

By latest official count in 2013, a total of 80,000 cases concerning substandard food were spotted in 2013, underscoring the severity of China’s food safety problem.

The authorities ordered 60,000 businesses found illegally operating without licenses to cease production, while revoking the business licenses of 576 operators during the period, according to the State Administration for Industry and Commerce.

A total of 300 cases were handed over to judicial organs during the period.

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Control

Nation’s food safety supervision network remains weak

Given China’s vast size, how to supervise so many small food producers is a massive challenge for the government. This is a common challenge for most developing countries, where most food producers are medium-sized or small businesses, lacking the ability and resources to implement self-management in food safety.

In addition to that, in China there is no unified administrative organ with the authority to deal with all the issues relating to food safety.

Even remarkable progress had been made in improving the nation’s food safety supervision network the current system still does not fit in with actual demand, noting that supervision at grassroots levels is extremely weak and that more efforts are needed to improve supervision and emergency handling capabilities.

campagnes%20chine

Farmers in China

Farmers lack of knowledge is a complex issue

Problems remained at deep administrative levels, as a large number of food producers and catering operators are running small-scale businesses and some consumers lack knowledge and safety awareness.

Farmer have suffered in modern China. Onw small factory owner told National Geographic, “Farmers find it hard to survive in an industrialized society. Farmer want to work in the factories, but transition is difficult and few of them adjust. They have no skills. They lack education. They lack the attitude one needs to learn. They have no sense of time, of living by the clock.” The small-scale farmer is largely seen as a dying breed in China, made up mostly of the elderly left behind in the mass exodus of migrant workers to much higher-paying jobs in industrial cities.

china-agriculture3-300x199

china agriculture

Historical problem : the choice between food security and grain self-sufficiency

We must remember that China began to regulate food safety immediately following the resolution of its food shortages.

Though it deserves the highest priority, food security does not equal grain self-sufficiency. In addition to growing challenges, China remains home to the second largest population of undernourished people in the world (160 million or about 11 percent of the country’s population).

Besides, a large number of people in China suffer from lack of micronutrients in their diet, the so-called hidden hunger. Striking an efficient balance between grain self-sufficiency and food security is thus important to get on the road to food security.

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Food Safety

The recourse to importation

The No 1 Central Document says the extent of China’s grain sufficiency will be somewhat relaxed and the import structure optimized. This is a welcome move. Such a policy will allow China to make better use of the international market. It will also facilitate improved allocation of resources among different commodities.

Self-sufficiency targeted to specific food grains such as rice and wheat in which China has an advantage, can protect domestic consumers from volatile international grain markets and thus promote social stability.

* Francois de la Chevalerie

Publié dans Food contamination in China, Food Safety in Beijing, Food Safety in China, Food safety in Shanghai | Pas de Commentaire »

Chinese government declared war on pollution : New Law and pending issues

Posté par ITgium le 29 August 2014

china-pollution-beijing

china-pollution-beijing

jùn mǎ (俊 马)

Chinese government declared war on pollution

After the central government declared war on pollution, the legislative process churned out an amendment to the country’s Environmental Law in April which determined that polluting enterprises could now face even harsher punishments if they choose to pollute their way to profit.

The amendment also gives enforcement personnel the power to shut down heavy polluters if violators fail to comply with environmental regulations. But just because there are laws in place doesn’t mean that the desired outcome will be achieved.

Gavel and law book isolated on white background. Shallow DOF

The new law’s content

The new law’s content

The new law has a number of provisions that are significant changes form before.

There is a lot of attention paid to fines per day.

Previously, if a polluter violated the law they would be fined once and there would be no additional incentive for them to come into compliance more quickly.

So now, for each day that a polluter continues to violate they can be fined in additional amounts and the fines increase, the longer it takes for them to come into compliance.

There are some interesting enforcement provisions, such as the right to detain persistent violators for 15 days, very interesting provisions on open information, public participation and public interest litigation. The big question is how these will be implemented.

One of the fundamental problems in the past in China was that the punishments for environmental violations were just not very significant. So, the new law is good in that it gives stronger authorities for punishment.

So, the penalty must be high enough to make sure that not only will polluters not benefit at all but also they will pay a serious price. But that’s only one step. In the actual judicial cases, when the cases are brought to the court, you need to make sure that the judiciary will actually implement and enforce it and make sure they pay a big price for polluting the environment.

Under the new law, more NGOs have been granted the standing to bring litigation on behalf of public interest. That’s definitely a plus.

Chinese government declared war on pollution : New Law and pending issues dans China environment governance index

China supreme court

Supreme court issues environmental guidelines

China’s top court issued a guideline on the environment aiming to improve the quality of related court cases and provide legal protection for the country’s ecology.

At the same time, the Supreme People’s Court has established of its tribunal to hear cases relating to the environment and resources.

The court said it set up the environment and resources tribunal because of more complicated environmental disputes and increasingly severe pollution problems.

Many local governments have established environmental courts or tribunals already, with their number reaching more than 130 nationwide since 2007.

The top court said its guideline and tribunal establishment will provide a standard for hearing environmental disputes across the country, and ensure victims of pollution receive compensation.

clipboard

Pending issues

Pending issues : Further changes that are still needed

(1) Problems with Enforcing the Law : the Weakness of chinese today courts

Courts have been very weak and have not been willing to sometimes even accept cases that affect very valuable economic interests. It’s an open question as to whether courts can play a greater role in the future, and I hope they do.

The other possibility is can the environmental regulators really withstand the pressure from economic interests and other vested interests and actually enforce?

In the past few decades, it’s been very difficult for the local regulators to do it and the central agency hasn’t had enough resources to really enforce. So that’s an open question as to whether that will change. In particular, will the central agency get enough resources to really put some pressure on local polluters?

This actually goes to the essence of the whole legal enforcement and the effectiveness of the legal system. You need to have a real consciousness about the rule of law. If all people take the rule of law seriously, then they will implement the law properly, no matter whether it’s the government or the polluters.

Take Hong Kong as a comparison, if you ask the law enforcement agency, their position is very clear, we don’t have any views ourselves but our role here is to enforce the law.

Whatever the law says then we will enforce it, if there’s something wrong about the law then you go to the legislature. In Hong Kong, the rule of law concept is taken seriously by the people.

daxiang_district_gov_building_shaoyang_hunan

(2) The local government issue

(2) Local government

In China, that’s still a serious problem because the local government and other various vested interest groups, once their interests are in concern they simply may ignore the law or put pressure on the judiciary not to enforce the law properly.

But the big question is will local regulators use those authorities? In the past, when fines were capped at a relatively low level, local regulators wouldn’t even issue fines up to that very low cap.

This has to do with issues of local protectionism; is the local regulator free to enforce strongly when local governments feel a lot of pressure to push very rapid economic development?

Those kinds of structural tensions in the past have limited the ability of regulators to enforce strongly, so the law is very good in that it expands on authority and takes away the legal barrier for stronger enforcement, but the question is, politically and as a matter of practice and implementation, can the local regulators use these new authorities?

really_good_careers_color

Career

(3) The specific problem of the Leaders political career

I think the root cause behind (the lack of political will) is the political careers of the leaders. Take the local government for example, or even the central government, the possibility is if you have a very clear and strict rule, have a bubble there saying this is the total amount of water pollution for example; you cannot exceed, anybody who exceeds this then we will not approve.

The consequence is that local GDP may not increase as much as you want and if you don’t get that increase maybe you wouldn’t get promoted. So that sort of consideration will affect the political will

Le-recrutement-fait-recette_article_top

Recruiting efficient people

(4) Lack of personnel in the China’s environmental agencies

Overseeing China’s immense industrial sector requires a legion of enforcement personnel, but the number of people available to China’s environmental agencies is just a small fraction compared to that of the United States’ Environmental Protection Agency.

From a governmental standpoint, enhancing environmental protection requires a great deal of political will at the local level; something that has been severely lacking in the past. Meanwhile, the amended law tries to encourage more public participation but lawsuits launched by individuals against polluting industries often lack potency and struggle to overcome the vested interests.

If you don’t have enough law enforcement officers to enforce the law then no matter how good the law is it won’t be able to be enforced.

Law enforcement should come from two angles, one is the pro-active approach taken by the environmental protection agencies at various levels.

MEP

T

(5) The role of the Ministry of Environmental Protection

Take the issue of local protection. Local governments in China often feel a lot of pressure to prioritize economic development over environmental protection.

In the US, a big change came in the 1970s when the federal government took a much stronger hand in monitoring and enforcing.

So, the equivalent in China would be if the Ministry of Environmental Protection had more resources and a greater ability to take a look at local implementation and define the places where there’s very bad local implementation and punish the local governments and local polluters.

China smog

China smog

(6) The Problem with Public Participation

A critical element in just about any country’s environmental protection is the role of the public.

Local people who are affected by pollution are the ones that care the most about reducing pollution. If citizens are able to identify problems and have their voices heard, to help put some pressure on polluters to reduce their pollution; that can be an extremely powerful force.

The problem in the past was in terms of priorities, economic development trumped environmental protection.

If citizens wrote articles or talked to the media and raised objections, most of the time those objections were not heard; so there was no response to them to improve environmental projects.

The result is the public feels that the official channels are not responsive. Potential options are the courts – Will courts be able to make difficult decisions against polluting factories? The history has not been good on this.

children-wear-masks-as-a-008-300x180 dans China environment governance

Pollution in Tiananmen Square

(7) What kind of Involvement of the public ?

What’s very promising about the environmental area is that there has been the space for the public to get involved.

There are more NGOs probably in the environmental area than in any other topic area.

They’ve been very active in educating the public and also advocating for policy changes for better environmental reinforcement. Citizens are very interested in having a clean environment, so they’ve been very active even if they’re not experts. There are dozens if not hundreds of cases every few months, every year in China where the public gets involved and tries to affect the way the polluters behave.

If the public is allowed to continue to do this, and educate themselves to get the information they need to understand what the problems are, and also to mobilize to express their views and create some pressure for better enforcement, I think that will be a really critical element, and will be essential if China wants to turn around its environmental performance.

If we use (the public) properly, it can compensate to a certain extent the shortage of staff at environmental protection agencies.

Publié dans China environment governance | Pas de Commentaire »

Tianjin Saving Energy Plan : 3 billions €

Posté par ITgium le 18 July 2014

Tianjin Saving Energy Plan : 3 billions € dans China Saving Energy Plan 5898858392_8ea4600c89_z-300x207

Tianjin

A jùn mǎ (俊 马)

As part of the State Council plan (Guówùyuàn jì huà) to make the energy saving sector a “pillar” of the economy by 2015, the city of Tianjin has launched a saving energy program in housing communities (residential building) that represents 85% of the housing in the city.

Given the soaring price of energy, the local energy consumption growing oriented and, moreover, the climate change that is upsetting the ecosystems, Tianjin has undertaken a bold and innovative policy.

Today Residential energy consumption (REC) is the second largest energy use category (12%) although it lags behind the industry by far. But because of the energy price on the rise and the today unrest in the Middle East, it could probably climb to 25 % in 2015.

st-regis-tianjin-in-china-by-haihe-300x235 dans China Saving Energy Plan

St Regis Tianjin in China by Haihe

In addition, fossil energy that represents 81 % of the energy consumption in 2013 will still remain at a very high level in 2030 (76%) that implies a dramatic increase in the energy costs.

As a Tianjin important challenge, saving energy reflects concerns about slowing down the prices.

Under such plan, environmental protection industries will receive funding from the government in an effort to stimulate technological innovation and to give an appropriate answer to this situation.

The new efficiency goals assume that Tianjin’s overall energy consumption will slow down but within an economic growth of 10 % per year.

Publié dans China Saving Energy Plan | Pas de Commentaire »

China energy saving plan : 500 Billions €

Posté par ITgium le 16 July 2014

china energy

China energy

Key objectives

- 500 Billions € will be invested (2015-2025)

- Reducing the Chinese carbon emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% by 2020 from 2005 levels

- To impulse the cleantech sector, products and services, in a 20 % yearly basis growth

- 10 millions of Green jobs will be created

Saving energy issue

China is to fast-track expansion and investment in energy saving technologies in an attempt to tackle its worsening pollution problems.

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China energy consumption

China’s massive economic growth has come at a major cost to its environment and even its environmental ministry has described the country’s environmental situation as “grim”.

Under the plan, environmental protection industries will receive funding from the government in an effort to stimulate technological innovation.

The funding will cover a wide range of technologies that address air, water and soil pollution including energy saving products, waste disposal, electric vehicles and pollution monitoring.

The plan will create opportunities for investors and will give direction to the industry.

The plan also includes policies, standards, pilot programs, financing mechanisms and incentives, emissions and carbon trading.

us-china-energy-lg

China USA energy comsumption

Plan implementation

However the plan implementation raises some question.

The importance of implementing standards and policies in order to create the demand for the energy saving and environmental protection market, and the importance of accurate measurement and public reporting to ensure standards need to be considered.

However the initiative is “encouraging”.

It shows the ambition of the Chinese government to tackle its growing environmental problems while making the country the world’s biggest manufacturer of the environmental protection technologies.

More details need to be known before it is possible to assess the effectiveness of the new plan.

Tackling pollution main commitment

Tackling pollution has been a priority of the new administration under Xi Jinping, especially as pollution has become a major concern among Chinese citizens and is one of the main causes of social unrest.

In an effort to tackle the problem, China has also committed to reducing its carbon emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% by 2020 from 2005 levels and is aiming to increase renewable energy to 15% of its total energy consumption.

Going forward, the plan target is to develop a yearly inventory of various energy saving and emissions reduction products and services to get a more accurate idea of the growing size of the industry and the economic value and green jobs created, to demonstrate the economic benefits of improving the environment.

Funding available

The announcement that funding will be available to environmental protection industries may help.

The new plan should prioritize creating an “enabling environment and support the development of domestic market.

Publié dans China Pollution crisis, China Saving Energy Plan | Pas de Commentaire »

Energy revolution in China – Chinese President Xi Jinping has called for an energy revolution in China.

Posté par ITgium le 24 June 2014

green-china

Green China

China is the world’s largest consumer and producer of energy and emitter of carbon.

The country’s voracious appetite for oil, coal, gas and renewable energy is fundamentally re-shaping the global energy landscape.

China’s slowing economy and the transformational structural change will have a profound impact on the ways it produces and consumes energy.

The growth rate for the country’s energy demand is set to decelerate from about 8.4 per cent to between 4 and 5 per cent, according to the Development and Research Centre of the State Council, the Chinese cabinet.

However, the absolute size of demand will continue to rise.

energy_consumption_by_type

energy_consumption

China must work to safeguard its energy security.

To ensure national energy security, China needs to take steps to rein in irrational energy use and control the country’s energy consumption by fully implementing energy-saving policies.

Two points

(1) Diversify the energy sources

The importance of having a diverse range of energy suppliers and sources to ensure the country’s energy demand and security.

New prominence on clean coal technology and upgrade polluting coal fired power stations.

In addition, China will explore and develop new sources of energy beyond coal and petroleum including natural gas, renewable energy such as solar, and wind and nuclear power. Evidence from past years is already showing strong signs of change.

chine-foule-noms-famille

China

For example, China’s coal consumption only increased 1.85 per cent between 2012 and 2013, compared to an annual growth rate of 8.3 per cent between 2002 and 2011. On the other hand, the country’s demand for natural gas increased 15.4 per cent in 2012 and 13.9 per cent last year.

Meanwhile, the country has experienced explosive growth in renewable energy production, with wind and solar power increasing 35.3 per cent and 122 per cent respectively in 2013.

At the moment, nearly two thirds of China’s energy consumption is powered by coal.

Beijing wants to reduce that reliance to 52.4 per cent by 2023.

International cooperation in energy production, exploring further opportunities in Central Asia, Middle East, Americas and Africa. Beijing clearly wants to diversify its sources of energy supply to ensure better energy security. China recently sealed the $400 billion natural gas supply contract with Russia, securing China a major source of cleaner fuel from its neighbour.

EnergyConsumption_FossilFuels

Energy Consumption

(2) Transform the structure of the energy sector

State-owned giants dominate the country’s energy sector from petroleum exploration to electricity generation. The cosy monopoly is a source of corruption as well as inefficiency.

China promised more market-oriented pricing reform to build a competitive energy market.

There have been calls to open up the country’s closed exploration sector to private capital and especially for unconventional gas industry.

Publié dans China Saving Energy Plan | Pas de Commentaire »

China toughest environmental law

Posté par ITgium le 23 June 2014

china-toughest-environmental-law-640x360

China toughest environmental law

Today, in China, the exacerbation of the overall environment has not been effectively controlled, especially the contamination problems of air, water and soil.

Ecological deterioration and increasing environmental accidents propelled China to figure out more effective measures to strengthen its environmental governance.

China should change its mode of environmental management that solves environmental problems through administrative means.

On November 2013, the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China stressed the importance of ecological development and made the decision to reform China’s environmental protection mechanisms.

Chinese government has raised its awareness on environmental governance, and now China is curbing its environment issues in its own way.

COMM--06062014

China-Strengthened-Environmental-Laws-Harmful-Pollution

On November 2009, the EU signed a financial agreement with the Chinese government to budget 15 million euros (US $20.6 million) to improve environmental governance in China.

The environmental governance, first defined by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), is a concept in political ecology and environmental policy that advocates sustainable development as the supreme consideration for managing all human activities — political, social and economic.

This EU-China cooperation is a forward-looking plan aims to assist the Chinese government and general public in improving environmental protection and promoting local sustainable development through public participation.

The “governance” of environment usually focuses on public participation in environmental planning and decision-making as well as public access to justice in environmental matters.

Environmental governance is an integral part of the whole national governance system.

Publié dans China environment governance | Pas de Commentaire »

China clean port and sustainable development : the sea mud topic !

Posté par ITgium le 12 June 2014

Port-of-Shanghai-01

Port of Shanghai

China Clean harbour and Sustainable Development : the sea mud topic ! *

François de la Chevalerie jùn mǎ

In outer harbours, rejections, waste and sand constitute an ungrateful material sometimes called “sludge” or “sea mud”. It could retain hydrocarbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and heavy metals.

Sea mud could represent a real danger for environment as well as atmosphere emissions. All ports are concerned, small or big one, in particular, arsenals. In addition to natural erosion, the traffic expands sediments accumulation.

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Port of Tianjin

Each day, expensive dredging operations gave access to navigation.

Then sea mud has to be rejected in dedicated sea areas with unknown ecosystem consequences.

Sometimes sea mud’s awfully contaminated take place in ground storage. If the sea mud is not buckled in tight boxes, it could have also ecological consequences. In one case or the other, those solutions have nothing to do with the idea of “a clean port”.

How to think the sea mud differently?

Today sea mud treatment is rare and always related to small volume, mainly contaminated sediments.

Once decontaminated, sea mud is rejected into the sea. A better answer consists in the transformation of the sea mud into Eco-building materials (roads embankment, kerbs, breeze blocks, moulded, flagstones, bricks).   

China clean port and sustainable development : the sea mud topic ! dans China Sediment issues 0013729e47710df9054613-300x234

Port of Tianjin

All over the world, the stake is crucial.

Actually, we experienced an increasingly shortage of aggregates from alluvial materials. In the same way, the careers close. Considered polluted, sometimes dangerous, their time is counted.

The sea mud constitutes an alternative, a “renewable material”!

Today Chinese develop projects of valorisation.

According to reports, the methods remain artisanal, but the Chinese has decided to make it a major industrial project.

Already, in southern China, bricks are manufactured. In northern China, roads embankment integrates sea mud.

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Three Gorges dam growing sedimentation condemns its hydroelectric potential

Posté par ITgium le 12 June 2014

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Dam

François de la Chevalerie jùn mǎ 俊 马 and Professor Levacher (University of Caen)

Located in Hubei province, near the city of Yichang, the Three Gorges Dam is the largest of the world for water control and hydropower productivity.

Built up thanks to a deviation of the Chang Jiang River, it is structured around a reservoir with a surface area of 1084 km2.

Bigger than the Itaïpu Dam (Brazil), the hydroelectric power plant consists of two sections: on the left, 14 turbo generators, on the right, 12 turbo generators.

The set offers a powerful 18720 MW. According to experts, the dam is expected to provide 10% of China electricity consumption.

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Sometimes quoted as a sustainable development project, the Three Gorges Dam suggests anxiety.

In addition to pollution and Eco system damage, the dam disrupts and alters the sediment cycle.

Upstream the river, crossing the Tibetan plateau, sludge inflates the Chang Jiang.

Due to an intense deforestation and desertification, soil is friable. Weakened banks permit landslides. Coupled with land overuse, sediment decreases the water velocity. Each year, 500 million tons are deposited in the river gorges, including the retention lake. At the work achievement in 2009, the pressure affected already its hydroelectric potential up to 50%.

Furthermore, sediments accumulation exerts a strong pressure on the structure and could lead to its cracking. Because the Eurasian and the Yangtze plate are not stable, the risk of an earthquake does exist. In recent years, low-magnitude earthquakes have produce landslides. In the event of a large-scale one, the Dam breaking could happen.

Downstream the river, sediment played before a role of natural fertilizer. Because of their decrease, agrochemicals use should be now required. So it will intensify water pollution. Already levels of phosphorus and nitrogen are twenty times higher than the standards. In addition, the sediment reduction may push back the River delta. Moreover, in winter, it accelerates saline groundwater within the delta.

 Three Gorges dam growing sedimentation condemns its hydroelectric potential dans China Sediment issues bararge-trois-gorges-300x200

three gorges dam

To challenge this situation, the solution could imply the sediment removal.

Given their volume, it requires considerable resources. Downstream the river sediment transportation looks like a titanic operation, quite impossible to manage.

Another answer is to valorise directly the sediments but they are heavily contaminated.

The dam construction has been swallowing 1300 coalmines, 178 garbage dumps, 1500 slaughter, etc. In fact, sediment offers an unprecedented variety of harmful heavy metals, toxic microorganisms, and so on.

Their eventual recovery in construction materials suggests chemical treatments (for instance, their encapsulation). Dehydrating process but given their enormous volume, the operation is likely unworkable.

The so-called Three Gorges sustainability depends on the sediment treatment.

Long underrated, the issue has been taken into account by the Chinese authorities, which have agreed with a 1.5 billion $ a budget to grant an efficient solution to the sediments future.

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China dams’s sediment nightmare

Posté par ITgium le 12 June 2014

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Dam’s issues

François de la Chevalerie jùn mǎ

Obviously, a dam main duty is to control floods downstream of a river flow or a tide. Frequently, it supports the cultures irrigation. Sometimes it moderates natural flood disasters.

Under constraints conditions, it authorizes electricity production. In history, dam’s construction was often celebrated as “a revenge on nature”.

“Our country will never be the same!” proclaimed President Roosevelt while launching the New Deal dams project. “China shall overcome the Chang Jiang (Yangtze)!” expressed today Chinese officials.

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Dam’s issues

With nature, arrogance is a poor adviser.

A dam is not a neutral infrastructure. Hustling the environment, it modifies the sediments distribution. Trapped into artificial lakes or tanks, sediments accumulation gives birth to serious problems.

Concerning the coastal dams, it affects the navigation channels and the fisheries areas. Deposits worsen water quality, entropic activities and in a latter future lead to strongly climate change.

In France, congested sediments into the tide Rance dam had been deteriorating its estuary since many years. Sediments into the Arzal dam in Brittany are up to 22 million m3, nearly 50% of that existing in the entire France harbor.

In China, the newly Three Throats dam could severely damage the ecosystem because sedimentary evolution remains unknown. In addition, sediments constitute a real danger in case of seismic trouble. In large cities, underground water quality could be also contaminated. So, it is not exaggerated to affirm that dam future depends on sediments solutions treatment.

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However, it is quite impossible to settle down a scientific model for all sedimentary layers. Each dam maintains a specific relation with its environment.

For each, a sedimentary hydro examination could eventually model it. One option consists to transport sediments outside the dam area.

But immersions operations couldn’t be carried out without taking into consideration ecosystem safeguarding laws. In land, deposits evacuation is not easy as well as very expensive.

The solution could come from China. Confronted with vast sediments quantities inside harbor and estuaries, China brings an industrial answer with the sediments valorization into eco building materials (roads embankment, kerbs, breeze blocks, molded, flagstones, bricks).

The so-called sludge project associates building companies, universities and research centers. For several years, genius civil departments have worked on sediments mechanical performances.

Little by little, technique improves. Recently, the Popular National Assembly has outlined that now China will become a world-engineering laboratory. Construction huge market meets that challenge. In Europe, increasing concern, related to serious sediments problems, impose also a radical solution to preserve the ecosystem.

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China’s industrial parks pollution 工业园 污染

Posté par ITgium le 10 June 2014

Tianjin

Tianjin

China’s industrial parks are engines of the country’s booming economy, yet they also are major sources of pollution.

According to a report released recently by the China Environment Federation, a non-governmental organization administered by the country’s Department for the Environment, these large-scale production areas are directly linked to several recent scandals. Notable among these scandals are Dalian Petrol Industrial Park’s PX project and Xiqiao Industrial Park’s chromium pollution in Luliang County, Yunnan Province.

The Report on the Investigation of Environmental Problems in China’s Industrial Parks (hereafter referred to as “Report”) was produced by the Inspection Litigation Department within the Law Center of the China Environment Federation. The Report finds that more and more legal cases point to industrial parks as major sources of pollution.

To understand conditions in industrial parks, the Inspection Litigation Department of the China Environment Federation conducted an eight-month investigation in 2010 of 18 industrial parks in eight provinces.  The study included two national and seven provincial industrial parks, which are located along major rivers and other important sources of water.  According to the Report, all nine of these industrial parks generate water pollution; 78 percent of them give off air pollution and 17 percent produce solid waste pollution. The Report also states that thirteen industrial parks are suspected of emptying their waste water directly into rivers.

Ma Yong, Minister of the Inspection Litigation Department at the China Environment Federation’s Law Center, explains that the report was motivated by an increasing number of suits against industrial parks. In one case in Xiangshui County, Jiangsu Province, rumors of a toxic gas leak forced thousands of residents to flee their homes. In the chaos several dozen victims were arrested.

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The Report identifies serious pollution problems in the industrial parks and makes recommendations for their prevention. It finds that several common factors – or ‘deadly sins’ – account for the pollution generated by industrial parks.  One example of such a ‘sin’ is that Chinese law requires an Environmental Impact Assessment of every project before it is constructed, but the process for approving enterprises and ensuring that they meet environmental standards is ineffective. Furthermore, facilities built to mitigate pollution in the parks are not used adequately. Land resources also are wasted. Disputes over environmental standards are frequent, and regulations often are not enforced.  These conditions in the eighteen industrial parks under review suggest general trends in China’s other production areas.

According to incomplete statistics China has 2,000 industrial parks. Two hundred of them are administered at the national level.  Qiao Qi, Director of the Clean Production and Recycling Economic Research Center at China’s Environmental Science Research Institute, maintains that the total number of industrial parks now exceeds 7,000 if one also takes into account areas set aside for industrial production at the county and city levels.

Ma concedes that “many problems occur in the county-level industrial parks. Even though provincial and national industrial parks are administered more strictly, their problems should not be overlooked.” To illustrate his point, Ma points out that Leping Industrial Park, one of Jiangxi Province’s thirty industrial parks,  was established as  a model of its kind. Yet after seven years in operation, the water treatment plant built to support the area was not yet functioning.  At the time the Report was written, waste water continued to flow directly into Poyang Lake.

“The other industrial parks may be worse,” concludes Qiao, who was one of the authors of China’s Ecological Industrial Park Standards. Qiao has visited many production areas to research and explore them. She feels deceived when she hears managers talk about environmental protection.

Sewage Treatment Plants – Water Throughways

Of the 18 industrial parks investigated, 13 have supporting waste water treatment plants. But these facilities are used only occasionally, and in some cases, never at all.  Clearly they are built primarily for appearances.

The China Environment Federation found that the Environmental Impact Assessment process reveals when laws have been violated and authorities ignored. Industrial projects that need authorization from the national or provincial governments are divided into smaller projects for approval by county governments which use a simplified process. According to the Report, some enterprises treat their approval documents as a form of protection against inspections or as an endorsement to delay the construction of waste water treatment facilities.

Jinshan Industrial Park in Ganyu County, Lianyugang City, Jiangsu Province, is a typical case. The environmental report for one of its enterprises stated that no waste water would result from production; however, on June 22, 2010, the Ganyu County Environment Department fined this enterprise for discharging highly concentrated effluents.

To pass China’s Environmental Impact Assessment Standards, an industrial park must claim that its pollution prevention measures address 75 percent of its load. Though many enterprises handle far less than 75 percent, no projects seem to be stopped by these regulations.

Jiangjin Industrial Concentration Zone passed inspection long ago. Yet its water treatment plant was not operational until 2010. The zone simply reached an agreement with the local village committee to designate a mud flat as a waste water disposal area.

According to regulations, polluting enterprises have a one-year trial period during which pollution prevention facilities are exempted from inspection.  Yet some enterprises continue to operate as they did during this trial period, sometimes for as long as seven or eight years after opening.

Ye Zhengfang, a professor in the Environmental Engineering Department at Peking University, says that some sewage treatment plants have become mere “water throughways.” Effluents produced by industrial parks differ in composition, and the quality and quantity of water varies significantly. Most sewage treatment methods rely on an activated sludge process that involves sedimentation or trickling filtration. Ye explains that “this process lacks the ability to handle complicated chemical sewage.”

Xie Hui, president of Environmental Resources Management, a privately owned and managed consulting firm in China for businesses, industries and governments, finds that “many industrial parks which originally attracted enterprises producing electronics now also draw chemical and heavy metal enterprises.” Some industrial parks discharge their waste water with domestic sewage, which may actually dilute the concentration of heavy metals.

One environmentalist explains why  “water throughways” are able to meet official standards. There are dozens of sewage discharge indexes, but few of them are precisely measured. Only the chemical oxygen demand, or COD, ammonia and nitrogen are measured precisely.  Because conventional processing occurs, “COD alone meets the standard.”

According to Ma, “That is all the country does for environmental protection at present.” Breaking the law costs less than adhering to regulations. As a consequence, many enterprises prefer to pay a fine rather than invest in technologies to dispose of waste water properly. Ma realizes that some enterprises even take the fine into consideration when preparing their annual budget. Some even pay the fine for the whole year in advance.  In effect, they pay a “fine for the right to discharge [waste water] and what was illegal becomes legal.”

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Air pollution in Tianjin 天津 污染

Posté par ITgium le 9 June 2014

Air pollution in Tianjin 天津 污染 dans China Air Pollution districtmaptianjin-224x300

DistrictMapTianjin

A jùn mǎ 俊 马 tale 故事 (François de la Chevalerie)

Located at 120 km southeast from Beijing, Tianjin, 12 million people, is a growing town with an outstanding rate of 14 % a year.

Around the old Western concessions and the Hai River, the skyscrapers abound. In the suburbs, the industrial development zones are stretching everywhere, from production workshops at prestigious facilities like the Airbus assembly line.

The appraisal would be exciting if the Tianjin air wasn’t heavily poisoned! Divided into 17 districts over an area of 11,920 square kilometers, Tianjin hosts an unparalleled variety of volatile composite. As everywhere in China, the reasons of the air pollution are established: explosion of automobile traffic, industrial activity growth, use of coal, uncontrolled release and a somewhat goodwill of the authorities.

In the district of Bīnhǎi Xīn Qū, the carbon monoxide level is currently approaching 250 mg/m3 while the World Health Organization norm is fixed ay 20 mg/m3. The sulfur dioxide is up to 600 mg/m3 while the WEO benchmark is of 20 mg/m3. Fine particle concentrations are around 150 to 300 ĩg/m3 while the European standards alert threshold states 20μg / m 3. In addition to the air pollution, most of the areas of the Eco city Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city did not receive until now appropriate remediation operations so the water could be also contaminated. At the end, the Zhōng Xīn Tiānjīn Shēngtài Chéng appears much more like an instrument of propaganda much more than an ecological project.

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Tianjin in China by Haihe

In the district of Bīnhǎi Xīn Qū, the carbon monoxide level is currently approaching 250 mg/m3 while the World Health Organization norm is fixed ay 20 mg/m3. The sulfur dioxide is up to 600 mg/m3 while the WEO benchmark is of 20 mg/m3. Fine particle concentrations are around 150 to 300 ĩg/m3 while the European standards alert threshold states 20μg / m 3.

In addition to the air pollution, most of the areas of the Eco city Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city did not receive until now appropriate remediation operations so the water could be also contaminated. At the end, the Zhōng Xīn Tiānjīn Shēngtài Chéng appears much more like an instrument of propaganda much more than an ecological project.

The presence of incinerators, industrial boilers and refining furnaces justifies this record. In the neighborhoods, the air is swept by discharges in the district of Hangu, the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) alert threshold often exceeded (400 ĩg/m3 hourly average). In downtown Heping district,

tianjin-300x225 dans China Air Pollution

Tianjin

From the Bohai Basin, already stirring all kinds of composites, the wind flow favors the aggregation of chemical particles. In this area, you feel like in the heart of a refinery. Your hands are black, permanently encumbered by viscous dust agglomerate. At the gates of the Nankai and Tianjin Universities, pervasively present pollution invades homes. To turn down this situation, surodorants intended to mask the odor are regularly dumped in the streets. If this practice improves the air, the coupling between molecules and chemical fumes disinfection could bring prejudice to the health.

Consequently, diseases related to air pollution are increasing in Tianjin. In hospitals, patients having asthma jostle with an annual increase of 15%. However no figures exist on the premature deaths from air pollution.

According to the delegation to the health of the city, cancer deaths rate rose 16% in 2013.

Despite this, the authorities are hesitant on how to challenge this situation. On one hand, they encourage industry players to make efforts, on the other, no closure of polluting sites were considered some of whom are yet in the heart of the city. No further restrictions were made to the traffic. In all cases, the monitoring system of air pollution in Tianjin deserves a complete overhaul, especially with greater access to information, records more regular and warning systems.

Methodology statements

As we did not have accurate information on air Tianjin, with several friends, we have installed pollution indicators in some areas of the city, where we work (Tanggu, Heiping, Hangu).

Publié dans China Air Pollution | Comments Off

China environmental crisis

Posté par ITgium le 9 June 2014

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From Kate Galbraith, Washington Post

Under a toxic cloud.

Buried in this month’s China headlines — about the gas pipeline deal with Russia, the US Department of Justice’s indictment of Chinese military hackers, and saber rattling with Vietnam — was this juicy morsel: Petco and PetSmart will soon stop selling dog and cat treats made in China. Big Pet does not want your puppies getting sick from contaminated jerky. Thousands of reported pet illnesses have not been definitively linked to the Chinese-made munchies, but it hardly matters: The “Made in China” label has become toxic. Over the years, tainted milk, pork and infant formula have made people jittery.

This is emblematic of a much larger problem: China’s environmental crises are starting to drive foreign companies and expats away, along with their money and talent. Pollution numbers are piling up, and they’re scarier all the time. Nearly one-fifth of farmland is polluted, an official government study found in April, and so is three-fifths of China’s groundwater. No wonder the tea in my cupboard isn’t branded as “Grown in China” or that a Chinese food giant just bought a big stake in Israel’s largest food producer, which specialises in dairy goods — in part because Chinese consumers are looking for safer cheese products, a Shanghai analyst told the Financial Times.

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For residents, the most obvious concern is the air: In smog-swamped Beijing, just 25 of 2,028 days between April 2008 and March 2014 had “good” air quality by US standards, according to a Wall Street Journal analysis of US embassy air-monitoring data. Don’t worry: China still is a great place to bring your family — just as long as nobody eats, drinks or breathes. I’ll always remember the way a top Texas energy regulator, Barry Smitherman, recounted a 2010 trip to Beijing, which happened to include the day the US Embassy infamously described the air quality as “crazy bad.” “I came away from the trip concluding that I’m not really afraid of the Chinese as a competitor,” he told me.

Of course, business in China has hardly ground to a stop because of environmental concerns. Quite the opposite: Depending how you measure it, China’s economy could overtake the United States this year, and Beijing still expects its GDP to grow by 7.5 per cent in 2014. Many international workers still want a stint in China, both for the experience and because they can often make more money than at home.

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But the casualties are mounting. An obvious one is tourists, who are recalibrating whether the wonders of the Great Wall are worth clogged lungs. The number of visitors to Beijing fell by 10 per cent in the first 11 months of 2013 compared to the same period in 2012 (other factors like the strengthening yuan were also at work). Edward Wong, The New York Times correspondent in Beijing, has written memorably about how many Chinese and foreigners, fearful for their air, food and water, feel as though they are “living in the Chinese equivalent of the Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear disaster areas.” After checking his own air filter the first time, Wong wrote, “the layer of dust was as thick as moss on a forest floor. It nauseated me.”

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It’s no surprise, then, that some people are leaving — mostly expats and wealthy or well-educated Chinese who are able to find well-paying jobs internationally. Solid numbers are hard to come by, but a recent survey by the Beijing-based Center for China and Globalisation found that nearly 70 per cent of Chinese leaving the country cited pollution as a key factor. (Many may not be leaving permanently, and pollution is not the only factor in their calculus — distaste of corruption, search for adventure, fear of arrest and desire for a better education for their children are some of the other reasons why people leave China.) But permanent emigrants will invest their assets elsewhere, to the government’s undoubted dismay. China’s one-child policy may contribute to the rush, says Daniel Gardner, a professor of history at Smith College, since couples with only one son or daughter are especially reluctant to risk their child’s health in a polluted environment. As for foreigners, a recent survey by the Beijing and Northeast China chapters of the American Chamber of Commerce found that 48 per cent of respondents “cited difficulty recruiting or retaining senior executives in China due to pollution,” reports Bloomberg.

Foreigners who stay may be making more money than ever because of the pollution, however. Panasonic recently started offering extra pollution pay for expatriates in China. The move will be mirrored by other major international companies, but it may not be enough. The Canadian Embassy in Beijing is having problems filling slots because of pollution concerns, for example, even though staff already receives a hardship allowance similar to those doled out in Bogota or Caracas, according to Canada’s Globe and Mail. In April, the Canadian ambassador to China hinted to the paper that one day, small children could be barred from accompanying parents to China.

Beyond individuals’ physical and mental health, the pollution fiasco matters because China wants to transition its cities to modern, service-oriented economies filled with software entrepreneurs, health experts and international financiers. “Under the old plan, where China’s get-rich plan was based on dirty manufacturing,” environmental concerns didn’t matter, says Matthew Kahn, a professor at UCLA’s Institute of the Environment and Sustainability. Now, China wants to send manufacturing inland and lure Davos and Silicon Valley types to its big coastal cities. But such people have choices, says Kahn, and Beijing’s allures of cuisine and culture, universities and government, will matter far less if people are afraid for themselves and their children. Even Shanghai, thought to be cleaner than Beijing, suffered its own Airpocalypse in December, a few months after the government grandly established a Shanghai Free Trade Zone to woo the foreign financial sector.

The good news is that over the last several years China has acknowledged the severity of the problem (something its badly polluted rival India still needs to do). Chinese Premier Li Keqiang famously declared a “war on pollution” in March. Facing up is the first step toward making improvements, though if history is any guide, it’s going to be a long and depressing slog — made harder by the fact that fighting pollution means shutting down factories and limiting vehicular traffic, which dents the economy. But it’s hard to put a price tag on resurrecting the “Made in China” label, and on keeping Fido healthy.

 

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